Turama–Kikorian languages - Turama–Kikorian languages

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Turama–Kikorian
Rumu – Omati River
Geographic
distribution
Omati River region, Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationPapuan Gulf ?
  • Kikorian
    • Turama–Kikorian
Subdivisions
Glottologtura1263[1]
Turama-Kikorian languages.svg
Map: The Turama–Kikorian languages of New Guinea
  The Turama–Kikorian languages
  Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Turama–Kikorian languages are a family identified by Arthur Capell (1962) and part of the Trans–New Guinea languages (TNG) family in the classifications of Stephen Wurm (1975) and Malcolm Ross (2005). The family is named after the Turama River and Kikori River of southern Papua New Guinea; the alternative name is based more narrowly on the Omati River.

Languages

The four languages are clearly related, though Rumu is divergent. Ross states that Rumu links the other (Turama) languages to TNG.

  • Turama–Kikorian family

Proto-language

Some lexical reconstructions by Usher (2020) are:[2]

gloss Proto-Rumu-Omati Proto-Omati River Rumu
head/top *mab *mab mapô
leaf/hair/feather *b[au]t *bɔt ?paɾâu
ear *go̝ *go̝
eye *isĩ *isĩ ihī
nose *ju *ju
tooth *magu *magu makù
foot/leg *tãᵋ *tãᵋ ɾɛ̂
bone *tab *tab ɾapò
breast *sõ̝ *sõ̝
louse *gutɔm *gutɔm kuɾɔ̀
dog *gas *gas ká ~ kaé
pig *gɔ[u]n *gɔn kɔù
bird *gaᵋ *gaᵋ ká ~ kaé
egg *d[ɔ]um *d[ɔ]um
tree *i *i ì
sun *ɛsɔa *ɛsɔa ɛhɔ̂
water *wẽ̝ *wẽ̝
fire *i *i ì
path *dɛⁱ *dɛⁱ tɛî
name *e̝ne̝ne̝n *ne̝ne̝n enené
two *t[aⁱ/aᵋ] *taᵋ taí

Vocabulary comparison

Basic vocabulary

The following basic vocabulary words are from the Trans-New Guinea database:[3]

gloss Rumu Ikobi-Mena Mena Omati
head wotu rapo mapʰ mabo mawo
hair pate maporo maboru mahabero
ear ku pate kupi kovi kovi
eye ihita si(tom) sitɔumu isi
nose yu rapo bopʰ boƀo sorowu
tooth maku ka̧i̧ yo kaiyɔ kokame
tongue ɔhɔ kumen kumɛn komene
leg re riki hae hại habo hai
louse kuro kurom kuromiə kulamu
dog ka kas kasə kase
bird ka kae kaiɛ kae
egg re tʌom tʌmɛ mena hai
blood hokore kai kai kei
bone rapo hap havo havo
skin heitau kora kʷaru kebo
breast so̧ so; šo šu
tree i i ʔi
man uki wane wɔnami; wɔne gamin
woman wo besi bɛse bes
sun eho iyos yosə; yosu soa
moon pari wasiba wasibia; wasibʌŋʌ baira
water u mu̧ mu fae
fire i kom kumu kumu
stone akapu kam kamə kamu
name paina nanini nɛnɛne nenena
eat nato nokun; nouwe nʌᵘwe damanai
one riabai; ṛiabai sʌkanɛ sʌkanɛ sakaina
two tai hae haiɛ hatarari

Fauna names

Below are some turtle names, with additional names in Porome, Kiwaian, and Kutubuan languages also provided for comparison:[4]

Language [Location] Emydura subglobosa Elseya novaeguineae Carettochelys insculpta Pelochelys bibroni Marine turtle
Ikobi [Kasere] (Kaiam) Kaso bubal Kaso bubal Kaso Uwo Kaso Mimiri
Foroba (Omo, Kuru) Kinisuga Kesoga Buguama Mimiri
Rumu (Kopi, Ogamabu, Irimuku, Lalau, Ario, Waira) Kehoko Kehoko, Purapati Piku Mimiri, Otohehe
Porome [Kibiri] (Veiru, Doibo) Ketori Ketori Watemui Kauri
Porome [Porome] (Ero, Wowou) Ketoko Ketoko Watemu Dabeuri
Kerewo [Goaribari] (Apeawa, Samoa) Koimo[5] Uwo[6] Unawaya Mirimiri, Gamo[7]
Kiwai, Northeast [Urama] (Veraibari) Koimo Koimo Va’ema[8] Goava’ema Mia Mia
Foi (Soro, Wasami, Tugiri, Kese, Kapoi) Baregwarabo
Fasu (Wairo, Hebaya) Eketaiyaa

Names for Emydura subglobosa and Elseya novaeguineae are generally identical or similar.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Turama–Kikori". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Timothy Usher, New Guinea World, Proto–Rumu – Omati River
  3. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  4. ^ Georges, A., Guarino, F., & Bito, B. (2006). Freshwater turtles of the TransFly region of Papua New Guinea – notes on diversity, distribution, reproduction, harvest and trade. Wildlife Research, 33(5), 373. doi:10.1071/wr05087
  5. ^ Confirmed for Samoa Village, Aird Hills by Martin Steer.
  6. ^ Confirmed for Samoa Village, Aird Hills by Martin Steer.
  7. ^ Name provided by Martin Steer for Samoa Village (Kerewo), Aird Hills.
  8. ^ Ma’ema has been recorded for Gope dialect, Kiwai NE language by Robert Petterson.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.

External links

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